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FSD1219 Poverty and Welfare Survey 1995

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Authors

  • Kangas, Olli (University of Turku. Department of Social Policy)
  • Ritakallio, Veli-Matti (University of Turku. Department of Social Policy)

Keywords

basic needs, consumer goods, consumption, domestic appliances, employment, household budgets, housing, income support, loans, poverty, social security benefits, standard of living

Abstract

First topic covered by the survey was housing: characteristics of the respondents' accommodation (size, number of rooms), housing costs, owner-occupied or rented, satisfaction with various aspects (e.g. neighbourhood, public transport). Respondents were asked about their education, occupation, own and spouses' employment situation, experiences of unemployment, unemployment benefits received and standard of living in their childhood home. Present standard of living and changes in it over time were queried.

Some questions were asked about which items and services the respondents regarded as necessary for present-day Finnish adults or for respondents themselves (e.g. domestic appliances, car, clothing, newspaper, adequate diet and housing, nights out, hobbies, holidays, celebrations and presents, social activities, meeting the costs of public transport, health care, mobile phone, PC, insurance). Opinions on necessities for families with children were queried (toys, leisure equipment, social and leisure activities, closeness of play ground, own bedroom for each child) and whether these should be covered with social security. Respondents were then asked whether they themselves could afford the above mentioned items and services.

Respondents' financial situation was examined by asking whether they had had problems paying their bills, had borrowed money from others, could raise extra money if needed, had been able to buy things they wanted or had recently made major purchases (e.g. car, house or boat). Opinions on minimum income for their own family, for one adult or for two-children two-adults families were surveyed. The survey also carried attitudinal questions about poverty, social security and people in need of social security benefits.

Experiences of poverty were studied by asking whether respondents or a family member would be entitled to subsistence subsidy/maintenance grant or had ever received it. Household monthly income, monthly costs and loans (including mortgage) were queried. Students were asked whether they had study loans. Background variables included respondents' sex, age, marital status, household composition, place of residence at present and at the age of 14, type of municipality, education, occupation and socioeconomic status.

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